Calorie Restriction with Optimum Nutrition
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The Albatross -- References

Go To >> Introduction | Part One: More Fat | Part Two: More Protein | Miscellaneous Observations | References

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2: Markovic TP, Jenkins AB, Campbell LV, Furler SM, Kraegen EW, Chisholm DJ. The determinants of glycemic responses to diet restriction and weight loss in obesity and NIDDM. Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):687-94. PMID: 9589225; UI: 98251117

3: Walford RL, Mock D, MacCallum T, Laseter JL. Physiologic changes in humans subjected to severe, selective calorie restriction for two years in biosphere 2: health, aging, and toxicological perspectives. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Dec;52(2 Suppl):61-5. PMID: 10630592; UI: 20094288

4: Verdery RB, Walford RL. Changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins in humans during a 2-year period of dietary restriction in Biosphere 2. Arch Intern Med. 1998 Apr 27;158(8 ):900-6. PMID: 9570177; UI: 98230102

5: Walford RL, Harris SB, Gunion MW. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U's A. 1992 Dec 1;89(23):11533-7. PMID: 1454844; UI: 93087562

6. Gaziano JM, Hennekens CH, O'Donnell CJ, Breslow JL, Buring JE. Fasting triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and risk of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1997 Oct 21;96(8 ):2520-5. PMID: 9355888; UI: 98015965

7: Sidika E Kasim-Karakas, Rogelio U Almario, Wendy M Mueller and Janet Peerson. Changes in plasma lipoproteins during low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets: effects of energy intake1,2,3. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 6, 1439-1447, June 2000

9: Donaghue KC, Pena MM, Chan AK, Blades BL, King J, Storlien LH, Silink M. Beneficial effects of increasing monounsaturated fat intake in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2000 Jun 1;48(3):193-199. [Record as supplied by publisher] PMID: 10802158

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10b. Abbey M, Noakes M, Belling GB, Nestel PJ. Partial replacement of saturated fatty acids with almonds or walnuts lowers total plasma cholesterol and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;59(5):995-9. PMID: 8172107; UI: 94226068

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12: Kris-Etherton PM, Pearson TA, Wan Y, Hargrove RL, Moriarty K, Fishell V, Etherton TD. High-monounsaturated fatty acid diets lower both plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Dec;70(6):1009-15. PMID: 10584045; UI: 20051094

12a: Morgan WA, Clayshulte BJ. Pecans lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in people with normal lipid levels. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000 Mar;100(3):312-8. PMID: 10719404; UI: 20184318

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Society for Epidemiologic Research

June 15-17, 2000 - Seattle, Washington

Presenter's Name: Marilyn J. Borugian

Phone: (604) 877-6098 x3174

Fax: (604) 877-1868


Category: CANCER

Carbohydrates and Colorectal Cancer Risk Among Chinese in North America. M. J. Borugian*, S. B. Sheps, A. S. Whittemore, R. P. Gallagher, J. D. Potter, A. Coldman (University of British Columbia and British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver BC Canada)

Background. Previous studies have analysed total carbohydrates as a dietary risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but obtained conflicting results, perhaps due in part to the embedded negative confounder, fiber. The aim of this study is to analyse the non-fiber ("effective") carbohydrate component (e-Carb) separately, and to test the hypothesis that effective carbohydrate consumption is directly related to colorectal cancer risk. Method. The data are from a large, multi-centre case-control study of migrant Chinese. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for age, saturated fat, fiber, physical activity, calcium, body mass index, family history, education and years in North America and to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate risk from increasing e-Carb consumption among subgroups by gender and cancer site. Results. A statistically significant positive association was observed between e-Carb consumption and risk of CRC in both males (OR=2.02 from lowest to highest tertile of e-Carb consumption, 95%CI=1.28, 3.19) and females (OR=2.54, 95%CI=1.44, 4.46). A striking gender difference in cancer site affected was observed, with risk concentrated in the right colon for women (OR=7.35, 95%CI=2.60, 20.80), and in the rectum for men (OR=2.78, 95%CI= 1.40, 5.54). The other sites for each gender showed little or no association of e-Carb consumption with risk. Conclusion. Increased e-Carb consumption is associated with increased risk of right colon cancer in females, but increased risk of rectal cancer in males.

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103. Danesh J, Collins R, Peto R. Lipoprotein(a) and coronary heart disease : meta-analysis of prospective studies. Circulation. 2000 Sep 5;102(10):1082-5. [MEDLINE record in process] PMID: 10973834; UI: 20432601

104. Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Rimm E, Colditz GA, Rosner BA, Hennekens CH, Willett WC. Dietary fat intake and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. N Engl J Med. 1997 Nov 20;337(21):1491-9. PMID: 9366580; UI: 98026765

Simin Liu, Walter C Willett, Meir J Stampfer, Frank B Hu, Mary Franz, Laura Sampson, Charles H Hennekens and JoAnn E Manson. A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women1,2,3 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, No. 6, 1455-1461, June 2000.

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